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Mexican Migratory Context

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          of people living in Mexico in 2020 were born in another country.

0.96%

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is the increase in applications for refugee status in Mexico between 2013 and 2019. The applicants are  mostly of Central American origin.

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Source: Mexico Population Census 2020.

Country of birth of the recent immigrant population in Mexico in 2020

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Source: COMAR 2020 statistics.

Mexico has become a country of  

transit and destination –sometimes more obligatory

than desired (Gandini, 2020) -, especially

of people in need of

international protection.

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Source: Prepared from the 2019 Continuous Household Survey (INE. 2020).

 
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Legal framework for protection
and social inclusion

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Current legislation in Mexico contemplates the expanded definition of refugee, used for the Venezuelan, Honduran and Salvadoran population, and explicitly recognizes the human rights of said persons, although certain discrepancies are evident in its implementation, as well as in the use of certain legal categories, like the humanitarian visa. 

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What impacts did the pandemic have on the migrant and refugee population?

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On March 24, 2020 the 
federal government resolved
 
suspension of deadlines and 
legal terms of the
 
regularization procedures
 
migratory.
People who needed to process a visitor's card for reasons 
humanitarians and people who needed to renew their
 
residence permits were greatly affected.

Health care for the population in general, and for people in situations of  mobility in particular, was affected because several of the public hospitals (including those usually dedicated to the migrant and refugee population) were reserved for the care of cases 
COVID 19.

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The impact of the fall 
income
brought about by the decline in activity during the pandemic has been very severe among informal workers, among whom migrants are overrepresented.

International organizations such as IOM and UNHCR generated support programs for shelters to adapt their facilities and established "filter hotels" to guarantee isolation spaces and the protection of both people on the move and shelter staff.

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How has the guarantee 
social protection in the pandemic? 

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Led by civil society organizations and international organizations, as well as certain donations from the private sector.

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In the monetary transfer system that the current government administration restricted to a more austere protection scheme (focus on young people and older adults), the inclusion of non-Mexicans in general and in irregular migratory conditions is not clear.

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Mexico was one of the few Latin American countries where transfer programs were not created to mitigate the socioeconomic effects of the pandemic on the population 
general or in the migrant population. Exceptionally, Mexico City has temporary employment insurance that includes migrant and refugee populations, but in the rest of the Mexican territory no specific government programs were implemented to address these circumstances.

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Luciana Gandini

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“The protection of the rights of migrants and refugees during the pandemic”

PhD in Social Science with specialization in Sociology

Institute of Legal Research and University Seminar for Studies on Internal Displacement, Migration, Exile and Repatriation (SUDIMER)

National Autonomous University of Mexico

This and other publications from our group are supported by the FORD/LASA Special Projects program [Grant # FL-15-01].

This and other publications of our group are supported by the FORD/LASA Special Projects [Grant # FL-15-01].

Alethia Fernandez de la Reguera

PhD in Humanistic Studies

 

Legal Research Institute


National Laboratory

Diversities
 

National Autonomous University of Mexico

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